Joined: 15 May 2012
|Posted: Tue May 29, 2012 2:17 am Post subject: Qosmio F60-10J battery
|Manufacturers of electronic devices base the performance on a perfect Qosmio F60-10J battery , a condition that only exists when the battery is new. Runtime, low cost and safety have been the number one criteria, and in consumer products longevity is often neglected. With the electric vehicle, this emphasis is changing, a move that will benefit the battery industry immensely.One of the most remarkable and novel discoveries in the last 400 years was electricity. We might ask, “Has electricity been around that long?” The answer is yes, and perhaps much longer, but its practical use has only been at our disposal since the mid to late 1800s, and in a limited way at first. One of the earliest public works gaining attention was enlightening the 1893 Chicago’s World Columbia Exposition with 250,000 light bulbs, and illuminating a bridge over the river Seine during the 1900 World Fair in Paris.
The use of electricity may go back further. While constructing a railway in 1936 near Baghdad, workers uncovered what appeared to be a prehistoric Qosmio F60-10H battery , also known as the Parthian Battery. The object dates back to the Parthian period and is believed to be 2,000 years old. The battery consisted of a clay jar that was filled with a vinegar solution into which an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder was inserted. This device produced 1.1 to 2.0 volts of electricity.
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Not all scientists accept the Parthian Battery as a source of energy. It is possible that the device was used for electroplating, such as adding a layer of gold or other precious metals to a surface. The Egyptians are said to have electroplated antimony onto copper over 4,300 years ago. Archeological evidence suggests the Babylonians were the first to discover and employ a galvanic technique in the manufacturing of jewelry by using an electrolyte based on grape juice to gold plate stoneware. The Parthians, who ruled Baghdad (ca. 250 BC), may have used batteries to electroplate silver.
One of the earliest methods to generate electricity in modern times was through creating a static charge. In 1660, Otto von Guericke constructed an electrical machine using a large sulfur globe which, when rubbed and turned, attracted feathers and small pieces of paper. Guericke was able to prove that the sparks generated were electrical in nature.
The first practical use of static electricity was the “electric pistol,” which Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) invented. He thought of providing long-distance communications, albeit only one Boolean bit. An iron wire supported by wooden poles was to be strung from Como to Milan, Italy. At the receiving end, the wire would terminate in a jar filled with methane gas. To signal a coded event, an electrical spark would be sent by wire for the purpose of detonating the electric pistol. This communications link was never built. Figure 1-2 shows a pencil rendering of Alessandro Volta.Qosmio F60 battery
In 1791, while working at Bologna University, Luigi Galvani discovered that the muscle of a frog would contract when touched by a metallic object. This phenomenon became known as animal electricity. Prompted by these experiments, Volta initiated a series of experiments using zinc, lead, tin and iron as positive plates (cathode); and copper, silver, gold and graphite as negative plates (anode). The interest in galvanic electricity soon became widespread.Volta discovered in 1800 that certain fluids would generate a continuous flow of electrical power when used as a conductor. This discovery led to the invention of the first voltaic cell, more commonly known as the battery. Volta discovered further that the voltage would increase when voltaic cells were stacked on top of each other. Figure 3 illustrates such a serial connection.Metals in a battery have different electrical effects. Volta noticed that the voltage potential with dissimilar substances got stronger the farther apart they were from one another.
The first number in the metals listed below is the affinity to attract electrons; the second is the standard potential from the first oxidation state.Qosmio F60 016 battery
In the same year, Volta released his discovery of a continuous source of electricity to the Royal Society of London. No longer were experiments limited to a brief display of sparks that lasted a fraction of a second. An endless stream of electric current now seemed possible.
France was one of the first nations to officially recognize Volta’s discoveries. This was during a time when France was approaching the height of scientific advancements and new ideas were welcomed with open arms, helping to support of the country’s political agenda. By invitation, Volta addressed the Institute of France in a series of lectures at which Napoleon Bonaparte was present as a member of the institute (see Figure 4).
Volta’s discoveries so impressed the world that in November 1800 the French National Institute invited him to lectures at events in which Napoleon Bonaparte participated. Napoleon helped with the experiments, drawing sparks from the Qosmio F60-00M battery , melting a steel wire, discharging an electric pistol and decomposing water into its elements.
In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy, inventor of the miner’s safety lamp, began testing the chemical effects of electricity and found out that decomposition occurred when passing electrical current through substances. This process was later called electrolysis. He made new discoveries by installing the world’s largest and most powerful electric battery in the vaults of the Royal Institution of London. Connecting the satellite pro c650-13d battery to charcoal electrodes produced the first electric light. Witnesses reported that his voltaic arc lamp produced “the most brilliant ascending arch of light ever seen.”
In 1802, William Cruickshank designed the first electric battery for mass production. Cruickshank arranged square sheets of copper with equal-sized sheets sizes of zinc. These sheets were placed into a long rectangular wooden box and soldered together. Grooves in the box held the metal plates in position, and the sealed box was then filled with an electrolyte of brine, or a watered-down acid. This resembled the flooded NB305-N413BN battery that is still with us today. Figure 5 illustrates the battery workshop of Cruickshank.
In 1836, John F. Daniell, an English chemist, developed an improved Qosmio F60-S530 battery that produced a steadier current than earlier devices. Until this time, all batteries were primary, meaning they could not be recharged. In 1859, the French physicist Gaston Planté invented the first rechargeable battery. It was based on lead acid, a system that is still used today.
In 1899, Waldmar Jungner from Sweden invented the nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd), which used nickel for the positive electrode (cathode) and cadmium for the negative (anode). High material costs compared to lead acid limited its use and two years later, Thomas Edison produced an alternative design by replacing cadmium with iron. Low specific energy, poor performance at low temperature and high self-discharge limited the success of the nickel-iron Qosmio F60-BD532T battery . It was not until 1932 that Shlecht and Ackermann achieved higher load currents and improved the longevity of NiCd by inventing the sintered pole plate. In 1947, Georg Neumann succeeded in sealing the cell.
For many years, NiCd was the only rechargeable battery for portable applications. In the 1990s, environmentalists in Europe became concerned about environmental contamination if NiCd were carelessly disposed; they began to restrict this chemistry and asked the consumer industry to switch to Nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), an environmentally friendlier Qosmio F60-BD531 battery . NiMH is similar to NiCd, and many predict that NiMH will be the stepping-stone to the more enduring lithium-ion (Li-ion).
Most research activities today revolve around improving lithium-based systems. Besides powering cellular phones, laptops, digital cameras, power tools and medical devices, Li-ion is also used for electric vehicles. The Qosmio F60-11L battery has a number of benefits, most notably its high specific energy, simple charging, low maintenance and being environmentally benign.
The discovery of how to generate electricity through magnetism came relatively late. In 1820, André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) noticed that wires carrying an electric current were at times attracted to and at other times repelled from one another. In 1831, Michael Faraday (1791–1867) demonstrated how a copper disc provided a constant flow of electricity while revolving in a strong magnetic field. Qosmio F60-10X battery
People want easy-to-read battery information. To share knowledge, I condensed the material from “Batteries in a Portable World,” a book I wrote, into essays. The website went on the air in 2003 and quickly became a popular resource of battery information worldwide. New material is being added as it becomes available.
Much of my writing comes from my personal experience working with Qosmio F60-10V battery . I also draw on test results from our own laboratories at Cadex. While laboratory analyses have their rightful place, I respect the opinions of battery users. This interface with the user gives me an advantage in learning how the Qosmio F60-10W battery behaves in the field. Such information is, in my opinion, more important than regurgitating reams of laboratory tests. The critical mass speaks louder than fancy brochures and printed specifications.
There is no black and white in the battery field, only many shades of gray. The Qosmio F60-10U battery behaves much like us folks — it’s a black box with a mind and mood of its own; it’s mystical and unexplainable. For some users, the battery causes no problems at all; for others it’s nothing but a problem.
When looking at a battery we must keep in mind that it is electrochemical. It’s a vessel that is slow to fill, holds relatively little storage capacity and has a defined life span. Although critical improvements have been made over the years, the progress is marginal compared with the vast advancements in microelectronics. As long as the Qosmio F60-10Q battery relies on an electrochemical process, limitations will prevail.
As there is no perfect spouses or ideal employees, so also have batteries strengths and limitations. The manufacturer has the choices of building a battery for long runtimes and low cost, but this pack will have a limited service life. Another variety is high load capabilities but this pack will be bulky. A third group offers extended life but the battery is heavy and expensive.Qosmio F60-10K battery